I agree with many of the comments. I would add that several of the factors that affect decision making are:
1. Decision-making is a concept often not understood. It is a process with constant adjustments and that must be taken by the team and not by the myth of the “lone wolf.” How effective is the process, the outcomes will be more controlable. Yet, this limited vision sometimes leads to missed opportunities.
2. The manager or leader, has its own metrics and personal and professional goals. These may enter in conflict to accept a long-term vision.
Achieving successful short-term results may be more important to the individual’s career than the result of long-term innovations.
3. The psychological bias of experiences: in negative conditions, will influence to have more conservative decisions. As well as how much the organizational culture foments the “risk to be the first one to do it” and to assume the consequences of the learning curve.
4. Several elements make this Dilemma more or less noticeable: what kind of sector are we talking about? what kind of previous experience has the sector experienced? Who defines the investments? What are their short-term or long-term interests, objectives and metrics?
5. We are in a culture of “immediate retribution”, it is a bias that exists from the formation as children, learn to break this bias, implies a change of formation
6. If the Goals and Metrics are defined in a way that does not foster innovation, then definitely the Outcomes will be that
7. How much the organizational culture foments the learning process? is there a “safe physiological” environment to make mistakes? does the company develop a strong Growth Mindset?
8. Is there enough tolerance to wait for results?